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Talk:EB 213 Traffic Management - Handbook for Concrete Pavement Reconstruction and Rehabilitation

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Deleted Sections (These sections were deleted from the wikipave version of Traffic Management - Handbook for Concrete Pavement Reconstruction and Rehabilitation (EB213).



A+B Contract Cost-plus-time bidding process where each contractor includes a time cost bid along with their construction bid and the contractor selected has the lowest combined bid total. AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI American Concrete Institute ACPA American Concrete Pavement Association Admixture A material other than water, aggregates, and Portland cement (including air-entraining portland cement, and portland blast furnace slag cement) that is used as an ingredient of concrete and is added to the bath before and during the mixing operation. Alternate Lane Construction A method of constructing concrete roads, runways, or other paved areas, in which alternate lanes are placed and allowed to harden before the remaining immediate lanes are placed. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials Base Course A layer of specified select material of planned thickness constructed on the subgrade or subbase of a pavement to serve one or more functions such as distributing loads, providing drainage, or minimizing frost action; also, the lowest course of masonry in a wall or pier. Bond Breaker A material used to prevent adhesion of newly-placed concrete from other material, such as a substrate. Bonded Concrete Overlay Thin layer of new concrete (2-4 inches) placed onto slightly-deteriorated existing concrete pavement with steps taken to prepare old surface to promote adherence of new concrete. Concrete A composite material that consists essentially of a binding medium in which are embedded particles or fragments of a relatively inert material filler. In portland cement concrete, the binder is a mixture of portland cement and water; the filler may be any of a wide variety of natural or artificial aggregates. Continuously Reinforced Pavement A pavement with continuous longitudinal steel reinforcement and no intermediate transverse expansion or contraction joints. CPR Concrete pavement restoration; the combination of available concrete repair techniques in one project. CRC Pavement Continuously reinforced concrete pavement; see Continuously Reinforced Pavement. Cross Section The section of a body perpendicular to a given axis of the body; a drawing showing such a section. Curing The maintenance of a satisfactory moisture content and temperature in concrete during its early staqes so that desired properties may develop. Curing Blanket A built-up covering of sacks, matting, hessian, straw, waterproof paper, or other suitable material placed over freshly finished concrete. See also Burlap. Curing Compound A liquid that can be applied as a coating to the surface of newly placed concrete to retard the loss of water or, in the case of pigmented compounds, also to reflect heat so as to provide an opportunity for the concrete to develop its properties in a favorable temperature and moisture environment. See also Curing. DBI A dowel bar inserter that places the load transfer bar into plastic concrete as part of the paving operation. Diamond Grinding The process used to remove the upper surface of a concrete pavement to remove bumps and restore pavement rideability; also, equipment using many diamond saw blades on a shaft or arbor to shave the surface of concrete slabs. Distress Physical manifestation of deterioration and distortion in a concrete structure as the result of stress, chemical action, and/or physical action. Dowel 1) A steel pin, commonly a plain round steel bar, which extends into two adjoining portions of a concrete construction, as at a joint in a pavement slab, so as to transfer shear loads; 2) a deformed reinforcing bar intended to transmit tension, compression, or shear through a construction joint. Drainage The interception and removal of water from, on, or under an area or roadway; the process of removing surplus ground or surface water artificially; a general term for gravity flow of liquids in conduits. Durability The ability of concrete to remain unchanged while in service; resistance to weathering action, chemical attack, and abrasion. Early Strength Strength of concrete developed soon after placement, usually during the first 72 hours. Fast-Track Series of techniques to accelerate concrete pavement construction. Faulting Differential vertical displacement of a slab or other member adjacent to a joint or crack. FHWA Federal Highway Administration Finishing Leveling, smoothing, compacting, and otherwise treating surfaces of fresh or recently placed concrete or mortar to produce desired appearance and service. See also Float and Trowel. Fixed Form Paving A type of concrete paving process that involves the use of fixed forms to uniformly control the edge and aliqnment of the pavement. Flexible Pavement A pavement structure that maintains intimate contact with and distributes loads to the subgrade and depends on aggregate interlock, partcle friction, and cohesion for stability; cementing agents, where used, are generally bituminous materials as contrasted to portland cement in the case of rigid pavement. See also Riqid Pavement. Flexural Strength A property of a material or structural member that indicates its ability to resist failure in bending. See also Modulus of Rupture. Fly Ash A concrete mix additive that is used as a replacement for cement in the concrete mix. Fly ash addition is important information in determining when to saw. Full-Depth Patching Removing and replacing at least a portion of a concrete slab to the bottom of the concrete, in order to restore areas of deterioration. Full-Depth Repair See "Full-Depth Patching." Grooving The process used to cut slots into a concrete pavement surface to provide channels for water to escape beneath tires and to promote skid resistance. Header A transverse construction joint installed at the end of a days paving operation or other placement interruptions. To a contractor, a header is the location at which paving will resume on the next day. Heat of Hydration Heat evolved by chemical reactions of a substance with water, such as that evolved during the setting and hardening of portland cement. High-Early-Strength Concrete Concrete which, through the use of high-early-strength cement or admixtures, is capable of attaininq specified strength at an earlier age than normal concrete. Hot-Pour Sealant Joint sealing materials that require heating for installation, usually consisting of a base of asphalt or coal tar. Hydration The chemical reaction between cement and water which causes concrete to harden. Inlay A form of reconstruction where new concrete is placed into an area of removed pavement. The removal may be an individual lane, all lanes between the shoulders, or only partly through a slab. Joint A plane of weakness to control contraction cracking in concrete pavements. A joint can be initiated in plastic concrete or green concrete and shaped with later process. Joint Sealant Compressible material used to exclude water and solid foreign materials from joints. Lean Concrete Concrete of low cement content. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis The process used to compare projects based on their initial cost, future cost, and salvage value, which accounts for the time value of money. Load Transfer The ability of a joint or crack to transfer a portion of a load applied on side of the joint or crack to the other side of the joint or crack. Load-Transfer Assembly Most commonly, the unit (basket or plate) designed to support or link dowel bars during concreting operations so as to hold them in place, in the desired alignment. Longitudinal Joint A joint parallel to the long dimension of a structure or pavement. Mesh The number of openings (including fractions thereof) per unit of length in either a screen or sieve in which the openings are 6 mm or less. Mix Design See Proportioning. Mixture The assembled, blended, commingled ingredients of mortar, concrete, or the like, or the proportions for their assembly. NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NRMCA National Ready Mixed Concrete Association Overlay The addition of a new material layer onto an existing pavement surface. See also Resurfacing. Overlay, Bonded See "Bonded Concrete Overlay." Overlay, Unbonded See "Unbonded Concrete Overlay." Overlay, UTW See "Ultra-thin Whitetopping." Overlay, Whitetopping See "Whitetopping." Partial-Depth Patching Patches for restoring localized areas of surface deterioration. Usually for compression spading problems, severe scaling, or other surface problems that are within the upper one-third of the slab depth. Partial-Depth Repair See "Partial-Depth Patching." Pavement (concrete) A layer of concrete over such areas as roads, sidewalks, canals, airfields, and those used for storage or parking. See also Riqid Pavement. Paving Train An assemblage of equipment designed to place and finish a concrete pavement. PCA Portland Cement Association PCC Portland Cement Concrete Phasing The sequences used by a contractor to build elements of a project. Placement The process of placing and consolidating concrete; a quantity of concrete placed and finished during a continuous operation, also inappropriately referred to as Pouring. Placing The deposition, distribution, and consolidation of freshly mixed concrete in the place where it is to harden, also inappropriately referred to as Pouring. Plain Pavement Concrete pavement with relatively short joint spacing and without dowels or reinforcement. Portland Cement A commercial product which when mixed with water alone or in combination with sand, stone, or similar materials, has the property of combining with water, slowly, to form a hard solid mass. Physically, portland cement is a finely pulverized clinker produced by burning at high temperatures mixtures containing lime, iron, alumina, and silica in definite proportions and then interground with gypsum to give the properties desired. Preservation The process of maintaining a structure in its present condition and arresting further deterioration. See also Rehabilitation, Repair, and Restoration. Project Scoping An early planning step in the development of a project where all project requirements are defined and a plan is developed to address them. Proportioning Selection of proportions of ingredients for mortar or concrete to make the most economical use of available materials to produce mortar or concrete of the required properties. PSI 1) Pounds per square inch; a measure of the compressive, tensile or flexural strength of concrete as determined by appropriate test. 2) In pavements, the Performance Serviceability Index. QC/QA Quality Control/Quality Assurance Quality Assurance Actions taken by an owner or his representative to provide assurance that what is being done and what is being provided are in accordance with the applicable standards of good practice for the work. Quality Control Actions taken by a producer or contractor to provide control over what is being done and what is being provided so that the applicable standards of good practice for the work are followed. Ready-Mixed Concrete Concrete manufactured for delivery to a purchaser in a plastic and unhardened state. Reconstruction The process of removing an existing pavement from its grade and replacing it with a completely new pavement. Recycled Concrete Concrete that has been processed for use, usually as aggregate. Recycling The act of processing existing pavement material into usable material for a layer within a new pavement structure. Rehabilitation The process of repairing or modifying a structure to a desired useful condition. See also Preservation, Repair, and Restoration. Reinforced Concrete Concrete containing adequate reinforcement (prestressed or not prestressed) and designed on the assumption that the two materials act together in resisting forces. Reinforcement Bars, wires, strands, and other slender members embedded in concrete in such a manner that the reinforcement and the concrete act toqether in resisting forces. Reinforcement, Transverse Reinforcement at right angles to the longitudinal reinforcement, may be main or secondary reinforcement. Repair To replace or correct deteriorated, damaged, or faulty materials, components, or elements of a structure. See also Preservation, Rehabilitation, and Restoration. Restoration Th e process of reestablishing the materials, form , and appearance of a structure to those of a particular era of the structure. See also Preservation, Rehabilitation, and Repair. Resurfacing The addition of a new material layer onto an existing pavement surface for th e purposes of correcting a functional factor, such as smoothnes s or texture. Retrofit Dowel Bars Dowels that install into slots cut into the surface of an existing concrete pavement. Rigid Pavement Pavement that will provide high bending resistance and distribute loads to the foundation over a comparatively large area. Rubblizing A destructive procedure to break existing concrete pavement in place to fragments that range in size from 4 to 8 in . Scoping See "Project Scoping." Set Th e condition reached by a cement paste, mortar, or concrete when it has lost plasticity to an arbitrary dearee. usually measured in terms of resistance to penetration or deformation. Initial set refers to first stiffeninq. Final set refers to attainment of significant rigidity. Setting of Cemen t Development of rigidity of cement paste, mortar, or concrete as a result of hydration of th e cement . The paste formed when cement is mixed with water remains plastic for a short time . During this stage it is still possible to disturb th e material and remix without injury, but as th e reaction between the cement and water continues, the mass loses its plasticity. This early period in the hardening is called the "setting period," although there is not a well-defined break in the hardening process. Setting Time Th e time required for a specimen of concrete, mortar or cement paste, prepared and tested under standardized conditions, to attain a specified deqree of riqidity. Slab Jacking Process of injecting grout materials beneath concrete slabs in order to lift or elevate the slabs. Slab Stabilization Process of injecting grout materials beneath concrete slabs in order to fill voids without raising th e concrete slabs. Slip Form Paving A type of concrete paving process that involves extruding the concrete through a machine to provide a uniform dimension of concrete paving. Slipform A for m that is pulled or raised as concrete is placed; may move in a generally horizontal direction to lay concrete evenly for highway paving or on slopes and inverts of canals, tunnels, and siphons, or vertically to form walls, bins, or silos. Subbas e A layer in a pavement system between the subgrade and base course or between the subgrade and a portland cement concrete pavement. Subgrade The soil prepared and compacted to support a structure or a pavement system . Ti e Bar Bar at right angles to and tied to reinforcement to keep it in place; bar extending across a construction joint. Transverse Joint A joint normal to the lonqitudinal dimension of a structure. Ultra-Thin Whitetopping Thin layer of new concrete (2-4 inches), usually high strength and fiber-reinforced, placed over a prepared surface of distressed asphalt. Unbonde d Concrete Overlay Overlay of new concrete placed onto distressed existing concrete pavement with a layer of asphalt or other medium between the ne w and ol d concrete surface to separate them . Vibration Energetic agitation of concrete produced by a mechanical oscillating device at moderately high frequency to assist consolidation and compaction . Whitetopping Placing concrete layer onto existing asphalt pavement. Whitetopping , Conventional Overlay of new concrete placed onto distressed existing asphalt pavement with no particular steps taken to ensure bonding or debondinq. Whitetopping, Ultra-Thin See "Ultra-Thin Whitetopping."