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Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) pavement
Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) pavements are a type of concrete pavement that do not include embedded steel or load transfer devices and typically is not jointed due to its method of placement. Load transfer is provided in an RCC pavement by way of enhanced aggregate interlock developed due to the compaction of the fresh RCC in addition to an optimized aggregate gradation that includes a higher percentage of fine aggregates relative to conventional paving concrete. The strength development is much quicker relative to conventional paving concrete (see figure to the right) due to the enhanced aggregate interlock provided by a dense, well-graded aggregate gradation. The dry nature of RCC, along with its dense aggregate gradation, allows the pavement to be compacted using vibratory rollers. It is typically specified that within 45-60 minutes of mixing, final compaction should be completed.
Additionally, RCC is unlike the other concrete pavement types because it is placed using a paver (which could be a high density paver or a typical paver used for asphalt paving) and compacted with rollers similar to the process of asphalt paving.
A detailed background can be found in the Guide For Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavements.
RCC pavements typically have a rougher surface (i.e. higher international roughness index, IRI), more like an asphalt pavement, than other concrete pavements (see figure to the right). For this reason, it is typically used for lower volume and lower speed applications such as shoulders, parking lots, and local roads. It can also be used as a base for a composite pavement. Other applications include ports, intermodal facilities, industrial facilities, logging facilities, composting areas, storage yards, airports, arterial and local streets, widened roadways and shoulders. For additional information on these applications, see RCC pavement applications.
RCC Materials Selection and Proportioning
While RCC contains the same basic ingredients as conventional concrete, it uses them in different proportions. Typically, a lower cement content is used and a higher amount of fine aggregate is used. The lower cement content can lead to some reduction in material costs. Additionally, due to the low paste content (reduced cement content and low water content) inherent to RCC, air-entraining admixtures (AEA) are not used since it is difficult to obtain a stable, well-distributed air-void system at typical dosages of AEA. For more information on RCC materials, see RCC materials selection.
In addition to the selection of materials, the mixture proportioning is extremely important to creating quality RCC pavements. A systematic approach should be taken to create a mix with desired engineering properties at the optimal cost that is also constructable. For further information on RCC mixture proportioning, including an explanation of the four main proportioning methods, see RCC Mixture Proportioning.
Other Types of Concrete Pavement
- Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP)
- Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP)
- Continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP)
- Pervious concrete pavement
- Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Pavement Applications
- Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Materials Selection
- Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Mixture Proportioning
- Roller Compacted Concrete Production and Construction
- Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Material Properties
- Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) Thickness Design